UIUC Early Action and Regular Decision Deadlines 2024-2025

By Eric Eng

By Eric Eng

auditorium at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), a prestigious institution known for its robust academic programs and diverse student body, offers prospective students the opportunity to apply through its Early Action and Regular Decision processes.

While the UIUC Early Action and Regular Decision 2024-2025 deadlines have passed, understanding its process can still offer valuable insights.

Does UIUC Have an Early Action?

Indeed, UIUC offers an Early Action option for first-year applicants. This process allows students to submit their applications earlier than the Regular Decision deadline and receive an admission decision sooner, without the binding commitment some early programs at other universities require.

The Early Action program at UIUC is particularly appealing for those with UIUC as one of their top choices and wish to demonstrate their strong interest in the university. It also provides an added advantage for applicants aiming for the most competitive programs, honors programs, or merit-based scholarships.

When is the UIUC Early Action Deadline?

UIUC’s Early Action deadline 2024-2025 was a critical timeframe for applicants wishing to take advantage of this early submission option. The application for Early Action was due on November 1, 2024, and all required items needed to be received by November 7, 2024.

This deadline was significant as it allowed applicants to receive early consideration for admission, especially for UIUC’s more selective programs, and eligibility for honors programs and merit awards.

The non-binding nature of the Early Action program at UIUC meant that admitted students were not obligated to commit to the university, allowing them flexibility in their college decision-making process.

When is the UIUC Regular Decision Deadline?

The Regular Decision process, another critical component of UIUC’s admissions cycle, had its deadline on January 5, 2025. All applications must be submitted on this date, with all necessary items to be received by January 11, 2025.

The Regular Decision process at UIUC offered students additional time to prepare their applications and consider their college options without the earlier commitment that the Early Action program entails. This pathway was ideal for students who needed more time to enhance their application or were still weighing their college choices.

The Regular Decision deadline marked a significant milestone for thousands of applicants hoping to join the diverse and dynamic student body of UIUC.

What time is UIUC Early Action Due? H2

The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) set specific deadlines for its Early Action admission process. UIUC’s Early Action deadline 2024-2025 was critical for students aiming to gain an early assessment of their application by the university.

Portrait of happy students walking with bag and mobile phone

The deadline encompassed a range of required items to be completed and submitted by specified dates. This early deadline allowed students to demonstrate their commitment and readiness to join the esteemed UIUC community.

Deadline for Early Action Application

The deadline for the Early Action application at UIUC for the 2024-2025 admissions cycle was set for November 1, 2024. To meet this deadline, applicants must submit their complete application by 11:59 p.m. CT on this date.

This early submission was crucial for those seeking early consideration for UIUC’s selective programs and potential eligibility for honors programs and merit-based scholarships. The early action process, being non-binding, allowed students to receive an early admission decision without the obligation to commit, providing flexibility and peace of mind in their college selection journey.

Final Time to Submit Required Items

Alongside the application, completing and submitting all required items were equally vital. For the Early Action applicants of UIUC’s 2024-2025 cycle, the final date to submit these necessary components was November 7, 2024.

This included items such as self-reported academic records, test scores (if chosen to be submitted), and any other documents specified by the university as part of the application process. Timely submitting these items was imperative to ensure the application was considered complete and eligible for early action evaluation.

Consequences of Missing the Early Action Deadline

Missing the Early Action deadline had significant implications for applicants. Those who failed to submit their application or the required items by the aforementioned deadlines were not considered under the Early Action program. This meant they lost the opportunity for an early admission decision and potential early consideration for competitive programs and scholarships.

However, these applicants still had the option to apply under the Regular Decision process, which had a later deadline, allowing them more time to complete and enhance their applications. Prospective students must be mindful of such deadlines to fully leverage the opportunities and flexibility offered by UIUC’s admission processes.

How to Apply to UIUC Early Action?

Applying for Early Action at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) for the 2024-2025 academic year was a process that required careful attention to detail and adherence to specific guidelines.

Two young Asian girls students are consulting together

Although the deadlines for UIUC’s Early Action and Regular Decision for 2024-2025 have passed, understanding the application process benefits future applicants. The application procedure involved choosing the right platform, gathering essential documents, and meeting the stipulated deadlines, which was crucial in successfully submitting an Early Action application.

Steps to Submit an Early Action Application

If you’re interested in submitting an Early Action application to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, it’s important to know that there are several key steps involved in the process. By carefully following these steps, you can increase your chances of being considered for admission to this highly respected institution:

  • Choose the Application Platform: Applicants chose myIllini and the Common Application. Selecting a more intuitive and user-friendly platform for the individual applicant was important. Regardless, UIUC preferred only one platform, ensuring a level playing field for all applicants. This step was the starting point of the application journey and set the stage for the subsequent process.
  • Complete the Application Form: Filling out the application form was a detailed task. It involved providing personal information, academic history, and extracurricular activities. This step was crucial as it presented the applicant’s profile to the admissions committee. Accuracy and thoroughness in filling out the form were key, as this information provided the basis for the initial evaluation of the applicant.
  • Write the Personal Statement and Essays: The personal statement and any required essays allowed applicants to showcase their personality, goals, and motivations. Investing time crafting these pieces was essential, ensuring they reflected the individual’s character and aspirations. The essays were about demonstrating writing skills and conveying a unique story and perspective to the admissions committee.

Choosing Between myIllini and Common App for Early Action

For UIUC’s Early Action application, applicants could use myIllini or the Common Application. This decision was an important first step in the application process. The choice between the two platforms depended on the applicant’s convenience and preference.

Both platforms were equally accepted by UIUC, with no inherent advantage to using one over the other. Applicants were encouraged to select the platform they found more user-friendly or aligned with their application strategy, especially considering the application’s other components and whether they were applying to multiple universities.

Essential Documents for Early Action Application

The Early Action application to UIUC required several essential documents. These included the high school transcript, self-reported academic records, standardized test scores (if the applicant chose to submit them), and English proficiency test scores for international applicants.

Ensuring these documents were accurate and submitted within the deadlines was critical. For UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025, it was particularly important to adhere to these requirements to avoid delays or issues in the application process. The completeness and accuracy of these documents played a significant role in evaluating the application.

How Many Students Apply to UIUC Early Action?

For the Fall 2024 admissions cycle, the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign anticipated many applications. As of October 24, around 9,000 applications were received, and it was expected that most applications would come closer to the Early Action deadline.

Four students walking next to a building.

The university is projected to receive as many as 40 to 45 thousand applications by the Early Action deadline, which indicates a significant interest in Early Action admissions.

Should I Apply Early Action to UIUC?

Deciding whether to apply through Early Action to the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) is an important decision for prospective students. Though UIUC’s Early Action deadline 2024-2025 has passed, reflecting on the benefits and considerations of this application pathway remains pertinent for future applicants.

Early Action, as a non-binding admission process, provides unique advantages for students prioritizing UIUC as their potential college choice. However, it also requires a readiness to meet earlier deadlines and a solid understanding of one’s academic and extracurricular profile early in the senior year of high school.

Benefits of Applying Early Action to UIUC

Benefits of Applying Early Action to UIUCBy submitting an Early Action application to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), you get the opportunity to gain the following:

  • Accelerated Admission Decision: One of the primary advantages of applying Early Action is receiving an admission decision sooner. This early notification allows students to plan their future more confidently and with less anxiety. Knowing the outcome of their UIUC application early in the academic year can provide peace of mind or ample time to explore other options if needed.
  • Increased Chances in Competitive Programs: Applying Early Action can increase an applicant’s chances of being admitted to more competitive programs. The early applicant pool is often smaller and might demonstrate a higher commitment to UIUC, which can be advantageous in the admission process, especially for highly sought-after programs.
  • Flexibility Without Commitment: Since Early Action at UIUC is non-binding, students can compare offers from other universities. They can also use the additional time to apply for scholarships and financial aid, making informed decisions without the pressure of a binding commitment.

Considerations Before Choosing Early Action

While there are benefits to applying Early Action, students should consider several factors before choosing this option:

  • Preparation for Earlier Deadlines: Early Action applicants must have their academic records, test scores, essays, and other application materials prepared well in advance. This requires a high level of organization and foresight in the junior year of high school.
  • Understanding of Academic Profile: Applicants should clearly understand their academic standing and how it aligns with UIUC’s admission criteria. Applying Early Action is most advantageous for students with a strong academic record through their junior year.
  • Strategic College Planning: Choosing Early Action should be part of a strategic college planning process. Students should consider how applying early to UIUC fits into their broader college application strategy, including potential applications to other institutions.

How Early Action Affects Admissions Chances

The impact of Early Action on admissions chances can vary. For UIUC, the Early Action process is a way for students to demonstrate their keen interest in the university, which can be a favorable factor in the admissions process.

However, it’s important to note that applying Early Action does not guarantee admission. The admissions committee at UIUC conducts a holistic review of each application, considering various factors such as academic achievements, extracurricular activities, essays, and test scores (if submitted).

Therefore, while Early Action might offer some advantages, it should be viewed as one component of a comprehensive application strategy.

What are the Odds of Getting into UIUC for Early Action?

Understanding the odds of getting into the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) for Early Action in the 2024-2025 academic year requires a nuanced look at the acceptance rates across different colleges within the university.

Group of students taking an exam.

UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025 offered a unique opportunity for prospective students to secure their spots in various programs. The acceptance rates varied significantly across different colleges. For instance, the College of Agricultural, Consumer & Environmental Sciences had an acceptance rate of 56.5%.

In contrast, the Grainger College of Engineering, known for its competitive nature, had a lower rate of 22.3%. Similarly, the Gies College of Business admitted only 24.2% of Early Action applicants. These statistics indicate that the odds of getting into UIUC through Early Action were contingent on the chosen major and the specific college within the university.

Early Action Acceptance Rates at UIUC

The Early Action acceptance rates at UIUC for the 2024-2025 academic year showcased various percentages across its colleges. Each college within UIUC had its own set of criteria and acceptance rates, reflecting the unique competitive landscape of each program.

For example, the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences admitted 45.5% of its Early Action applicants, while the School of Information Sciences had a more selective rate of 21.6%. These figures highlight the varying levels of competition among the different colleges at UIUC. Applicants who applied for Early Action faced different odds based on their chosen field of study, with some programs being more accessible than others.

Comparing Early Action and Regular Decision Acceptance Rates

When comparing Early Action and Regular Decision acceptance rates at UIUC for the 2024-2025 academic year, it’s important to consider the strategic advantages that Early Action might offer.

Historical trends at UIUC and other universities suggest that early-action applicants often enjoy a slight advantage. This advantage could be attributed to factors such as demonstrating early interest in the university and the possibility of less competition in the Early Action pool.

However, the acceptance rates for both Early Action and Regular Decision are influenced by the overall competitiveness of the university and the specific program applied.

Factors Impacting Early Action Admissions Odds

Several factors impact the odds of admission for Early Action applicants at UIUC. Firstly, the choice of major plays a significant role, as some programs have higher acceptance rates than others. For instance, majors within the Grainger College of Engineering and the Gies College of Business are known for lower acceptance rates due to high demand and rigorous selection criteria.

Additionally, the overall academic profile of the applicant, including GPA, standardized test scores, and extracurricular activities, is crucial in the admissions process. UIUC also considers the quality of essays and letters of recommendation, which can provide insights into an applicant’s character and potential fit with the university’s community.

Applicants need to understand that while Early Action offers an earlier response from the university, it does not guarantee admission, and the same holistic review process is applied as in Regular Decision.

Can I Apply to Other Schools Early?

When considering UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025, a common question among applicants is whether they can apply to other schools early. The answer largely depends on the policies of the other institutions and the type of early application program they offer.

A male student looking for his university

Generally, applying to UIUC under Early Action does not restrict students from applying to other schools under their respective Early Action programs. However, if the other institutions have Early Decision programs, which are binding, students need to be aware of the commitments involved. It’s essential for applicants to thoroughly understand the early application policies of each university they are considering to ensure they do not breach any agreements or obligations.

Understanding UIUC’s Early Action Policy on Multiple Applications

UIUC’s Early Action policy for the 2024-2025 academic year was designed to be non-restrictive, allowing students the flexibility to apply to other universities concurrently under similar early application programs.

This approach contrasts with Early Decision programs offered by some institutions, which require a binding commitment to attend if accepted. UIUC’s policy reflects an understanding that students may wish to explore multiple options before making a final decision.

As such, applicants who met the UIUC Early Action Deadline 2024-2025 could submit applications to other schools, provided those schools also had non-binding early application processes.

Restrictions on Applying Early to Other Institutions

While UIUC’s Early Action program for the 2024-2025 academic year did not impose restrictions on applying early to other schools, applicants needed to be mindful of the policies of other universities. Some institutions offer binding Early Decision programs, which require the student to withdraw all other applications if accepted.

Students must distinguish between Early Action and Early Decision when applying to multiple universities. If a student applies to a school under an Early Decision program, they must be prepared to commit to that institution, which could affect their application strategy, including their application to UIUC under Early Action.

Strategies for Balancing Multiple Early Applications

Balancing multiple early applications, including UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025, requires careful planning and consideration. Students should start by researching each university’s early application policies to understand their choices’ implications.

Prioritizing universities based on preference and the likelihood of acceptance can help make strategic decisions. It’s also important to prepare a strong application for each university, tailoring personal statements and other materials to meet specific criteria.

Time management is key, as meeting multiple deadlines can be challenging. Additionally, students should prepare for various outcomes, including acceptance, deferral, or rejection, and have a plan for their Regular Decision applications if needed.

What is the Impact of Early Action Decision on UIUC Scholarships?

The impact of an Early Action decision on scholarship opportunities at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) for the academic year 2024-2025 is a critical consideration for applicants.

a male and female college students standing at a doorway

Generally, applying by UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025 does not automatically influence scholarship decisions, as these are often evaluated separately. However, meeting the early deadline can demonstrate a student’s keen interest in UIUC, which might be favorably viewed in some scholarship contexts.

It’s important to note that scholarships are typically awarded based on a combination of merit and need, and the criteria can vary widely depending on the specific scholarship program. Therefore, while Early Action applicants may not have a direct advantage in terms of scholarships, their early engagement with the university and timely submission of required documents can place them in a good position for consideration.

Scholarship Opportunities for Early Action Applicants

Various scholarship opportunities are available for students who met UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025. UIUC offers various scholarships catering to academic, extracurricular, and personal backgrounds.

These scholarships are designed to recognize academic excellence, leadership qualities, and other unique talents or circumstances. Early Action applicants should explore these opportunities and apply for those that align with their qualifications and interests.

Students must research each scholarship’s criteria and deadlines, as some may require separate applications and additional materials beyond the standard admission application.

Timeline for UIUC Scholarship Notifications

The timeline for scholarship notifications at UIUC can vary depending on the specific scholarship program. Generally, after the Early Action decisions are released, which typically occurs in late January, the scholarship review process begins.

Students who applied by the Early Action deadline and are considered for scholarships will receive notifications in the following months, usually by late spring. It’s important for students to regularly check their email and the university’s scholarship portal for updates and notifications.

Additionally, some scholarships may require interviews or additional information, so staying attentive to these requirements is crucial for maintaining eligibility.

How Early Action Decisions Influence Financial Aid Options

Early Action decisions at UIUC for the 2024-2025 academic year can affect financial aid options. While the Early Action decision does not directly affect financial aid eligibility, applying early allows students more time to prepare and submit financial aid applications, such as the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).

Early applicants typically have a better chance of receiving a comprehensive financial aid package since they are ahead. This early submission can be particularly beneficial for accessing limited funds, such as certain grants or work-study opportunities, which are awarded on a first-come, first-served basis.

Therefore, students who meet the Early Action deadline should also prioritize their financial aid applications to maximize their chances of receiving an optimal aid package.

How is Early Action Different From Regular Decision at UIUC?

The distinction between Early Action and Regular Decision at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) for the 2024-2025 academic year lies primarily in the application timeline and the subsequent decision-making process.

three students in the walkway

UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025 was set for November 1, with applicants receiving admission status updates by January 26. This early timeline allows students to receive their decisions well in advance compared to the Regular Decision process.

In contrast, UIUC’s Regular Decision Deadline 2024-2025 typically falls in early February, with decisions announced in early March. The key difference is that Early Action applicants have the advantage of an earlier response, which can be particularly beneficial for planning and peace of mind.

Key Differences Between Early Action and Regular Decision Pathways

The key differences between Early Action and Regular Decision pathways at UIUC revolve around the application deadlines, decision timelines, and the level of commitment. Early Action, with its earlier deadline, offers students the opportunity to learn about their admission status sooner, which can be a significant advantage in college planning.

However, unlike some Early Decision programs at other universities, Early Action at UIUC is non-binding, meaning students are not obligated to commit upon acceptance. On the other hand, regular Decision applicants have more time to prepare their applications but must wait longer for their admission results. This extended timeline can impact their decision-making about housing, financial aid, and other college preparations.

Pros and Cons of Applying Early Action versus Regular Decision

Applying through Early Action at UIUC offers several advantages, such as receiving an earlier admission decision, which can alleviate stress and aid in better planning for the future. It also allows students to demonstrate their strong interest in UIUC. However, one potential downside is the shorter time frame to prepare a strong application, which might be challenging for some students.

On the other hand, the Regular Decision pathway provides more time to refine applications, gather materials, and consider various college options. The trade-off, however, is a longer waiting period for the admission decision, which can delay other college preparation processes.

How Your Choice Affects Admission Chances and College Planning

Choosing between Early Action and Regular Decision at UIUC can influence a student’s admission chances and college planning process. Applying for Early Action might offer a slight advantage in highly competitive programs due to the demonstration of early interest and commitment.

However, this does not guarantee admission, as UIUC maintains a holistic review process for all applicants. In terms of college planning, an early admission decision allows more time to explore financial aid options, housing arrangements, and course selections. Conversely, Regular Decision applicants have a longer period to decide where to apply but face a condensed timeline for making post-admission decisions.

What is UIUC’s Early Action Admission Criteria

The Early Action admission criteria at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) for the 2025-2025 academic year encompassed a comprehensive evaluation of each applicant’s academic and personal achievements.

View of a woman smiling while her classmates are talking at the back.

Meeting UIUC’s Early Action Deadline 2024-2025 required students to submit their applications by November 1, with decisions announced by January 26. The criteria for Early Action were similar to those of Regular Decision, focusing on academic performance, strength of high school curriculum, extracurricular activities, personal essays, and letters of recommendation.

UIUC’s admissions process is holistic, meaning no single factor determines acceptance. Instead, the university considers a combination of factors to understand the full breadth of each applicant’s background, achievements, and potential.

Academic and Extracurricular Expectations for Early Action Candidates

For Early Action candidates at UIUC, the academic and extracurricular expectations were high. The university sought students who demonstrated strong academic performance in a rigorous high school curriculum.

This included taking advanced courses available to them, such as Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), or honors classes. In addition to academic prowess, UIUC values diverse extracurricular involvement.

This could include leadership roles, community service, sports, arts, or other activities that showcase a candidate’s skills, interests, and character. The aim was to admit well-rounded individuals who would contribute positively to the campus community.

The Role of Test Scores in Early Action Admissions

The role of standardized test scores in Early Action admissions at UIUC for the 2024-2025 academic cycle was an important aspect of the application process. While UIUC adopted a test-optional policy, allowing students the choice of whether to submit ACT or SAT scores, these scores were still a significant consideration for those who chose to submit them.

For applicants who reported their scores, they provided additional context to their academic readiness and potential for success at the university level. However, for students who did not submit test scores, UIUC placed greater emphasis on other aspects of their application, such as GPA, course rigor, essays, and extracurricular activities.

Importance of Course Rigor and Grades in Early Action Evaluation

Course rigor and grades played a crucial role in the Early Action evaluation process at UIUC. The university closely examined the types of courses applicants took in high school and their performance in these courses.

A strong academic record with a challenging curriculum was highly valued, indicating students’ ability to thrive in a rigorous academic environment. UIUC looked for applicants who challenged themselves with advanced courses like AP, IB, or honors and maintained a strong GPA.

This focus on academic rigor and performance was designed to ensure that students admitted under Early Action were well-prepared for the academic challenges they would face at the university.

What Are Some FAQs About UIUC’s Early Action Program?

Frequently asked questions about UIUC’s Early Action program for the 2024-2025 academic year often revolve around the specifics of the application process and decision timelines.

A professor giving instructions to a student.

Applicants commonly inquire about the differences between Early Action and Regular Decision, particularly regarding the impact on their chances of admission. Questions also focus on the types of materials required for Early Action applications, such as standardized test scores, essays, and letters of recommendation.

Another common area of inquiry is the deadline for Early Action, which was November 1, with admission notifications released by January 26. Understanding these key aspects helps applicants navigate the Early Action process more effectively.

Clarifying Common Misconceptions About Early Action at UIUC

There are several common misconceptions about Early Action at UIUC that need clarification. Firstly, many applicants mistakenly believe that Early Action offers a significant advantage in acceptance rates compared to Regular Decision.

While Early-action applicants receive earlier decisions, the acceptance criteria remain consistent across both application types. Another misconception is that Early Action is binding, like Early Decision programs at some universities.

However, UIUC’s Early Action program is non-binding, allowing students the flexibility to choose other institutions even after being accepted. Lastly, some applicants assume that all programs at UIUC are available for Early Action, but certain highly competitive majors may have different timelines or requirements.

Addressing Frequent Questions on Early Action Procedures

Frequent questions regarding Early Action procedures at UIUC typically include inquiries about the application components, such as the role of essays, extracurricular activities, and letters of recommendation in the evaluation process.

Applicants often ask about the importance of submitting standardized test scores, especially regarding test-optional policies. Another common question concerns the timeline for Early Action decisions and how it align with financial aid and scholarship applications.

Additionally, applicants are curious about the possibility of deferring their admission if they are accepted through Early Action but decide to take a gap year or explore other options.

Where to Find Resources and Support for Early Action Applicants?

Resources and support for Early Action applicants to UIUC are abundant and easily accessible. The primary source of information is the UIUC admissions website, which provides detailed guidelines on application procedures, deadlines, and requirements.

The website also offers insights into the university’s academic programs, campus life, and financial aid options. Applicants can contact the admissions office via email or phone for personalized assistance. UIUC also hosts virtual and in-person information sessions and campus tours, which can be invaluable for prospective students.

Additionally, online forums and social media groups dedicated to UIUC admissions can be helpful platforms for sharing experiences and seeking advice from peers and current students.

Experience the AdmissionSight Advantage for Your College Journey

Embark on your college admissions journey with AdmissionSight, where your aspirations meet our expertise. At AdmissionSight, we understand that navigating the complex world of college admissions can be daunting. That’s why we’re here to guide you every step of the way, ensuring that your application stands out in the competitive landscape.

Unlock Your Potential with Expert Guidance

Our team of seasoned admissions consultants brings a wealth of experience and insider knowledge to the table. We craft compelling narratives highlighting your unique strengths, talents, and accomplishments. With AdmissionSight, you’re not just applying; you’re telling your story in a way that resonates with admissions committees.

Customized Strategies for Success

We believe in a personalized approach. Our services are tailored to meet your needs, whether aiming for Ivy League schools, prestigious art programs, or leading engineering colleges. From selecting the right courses and extracurriculars to preparing for standardized tests, we provide customized strategies that align with your goals.

Maximize Your College Admissions Odds

With AdmissionSight, you gain access to proven strategies that have helped countless students gain admission to top-tier universities. Our track record speaks for itself, and we’re committed to helping you achieve similar success. We offer comprehensive support, including essay editing, interview preparation, and application review, to maximize your chances of getting into your dream college.

Don’t let the complexities of college admissions hold you back. Contact AdmissionSight today for a consultation, and let’s start paving the path to your academic and career success. Visit our website, call us, or email us to learn how we can help turn your college aspirations into reality. With AdmissionSight, the journey to your dream college begins now.


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Sign up now to receive insights on
how to navigate the college admissions process.