The Ultimate Guide to Acing the AP Computer Science Principles Exam

By Eric Eng

By Eric Eng

The Ultimate Guide to Acing the AP Computer Science Principles Exam

The AP Computer Science Principles exam is a comprehensive test that evaluates a student’s understanding of the foundational principles of computer science. As a crucial aspect of many high school curriculums, it’s crucial to approach the exam prepared. This guide will help you understand the structure of the exam, the content tested, study strategies, and tips for the big day.

What is the AP Computer Science Principles Exam?

The AP Computer Science Principles (AP CSP) exam is a standardized test offered by the College Board, designed for high school students in the United States who are interested in exploring computer science principles and gaining a broader understanding of the subject. This exam is part of the Advanced Placement (AP) program and is often taken after completing the corresponding AP Computer Science Principles course, which is a comprehensive introduction to the field of computer science.

Understanding the Structure of the AP Computer Science Principles Exam

Overview of the Exam Format

The AP Computer Science Principles exam is a standardized test administered by the College Board to evaluate students’ knowledge of fundamental computer science concepts and their capacity for critical study of the impact of computing and technology, as well as problem-solving using computational thinking.

The AP Computer Science Principles exam covers big ideas that serve as the foundation for the course. These big ideas include:

Big Idea Exam Weighting (Multiple-Choice Section)
Big Idea 1: Creative Development 10%–13%
Big Idea 2: Data 17%–22%
Big Idea 3: Algorithms and Programming 30%–35%
Big Idea 4: Computer Systems and Networks 11%–15%
Big Idea 5: Impact of Computing 21%–26%

Within each big idea, there are specific content areas that you need to focus on. These content areas include:

  • The Internet
  • Data Analysis
  • Programming
  • Impact of Computing
  • Algorithms
  • Hardware and Software

Let’s dive deeper into these content areas to understand what you can expect on the AP Computer Science Principles exam.

The Internet

This content area focuses on the structure and functioning of the Internet. You may be asked to explain how data is transmitted over the Internet, the role of routers and servers, and the protocols used for communication.

Data Analysis

Data analysis involves extracting insights and patterns from data. This content area explores techniques for data collection, cleaning, visualization, and research. You may encounter questions that require you to interpret data visualizations or perform fundamental statistical analysis.


Programming is a crucial skill in computer science. This content area covers programming concepts, such as variables, control structures, functions, and object-oriented programming. You may be asked to write code, debug programs, or analyze code snippets for errors.

Impact of Computing

Computing technologies have a profound impact on individuals, society, and the environment. This content area examines the ethical, social, and environmental implications of computing. You may encounter questions that require you to analyze the consequences of technology use and propose solutions to address ethical dilemmas.


Algorithms are fundamental to problem-solving in computer science. This content area explores algorithm design and analysis, including efficiency and correctness. You may be tested on your ability to analyze and optimize algorithms or create new algorithms to solve specific problems.

Hardware and Software

Hardware and software are the building blocks of computing systems. This content area covers the components of a computer system, such as processors, memory, storage, and operating systems. You may encounter questions that require you to identify hardware components or explain the interaction between hardware and software.

As you prepare for the AP Computer Science Principles exam, make sure to study each big idea and content area thoroughly. Understanding the concepts and being able to apply them to various scenarios will significantly increase your chances of success on the exam.

The Computational Thinking Practices are distinct skills outlined in the AP Computer Science Principles course framework that students should practice and develop throughout the year. These skills will help them learn to think and act like computer scientists. The course emphasizes creativity and collaboration as pedagogical strategies to build a diverse, appealing, and inclusive classroom environment. The Computational Thinking Practices include the following:

Computational Thinking Practice Description Exam Weighting (Multiple-Choice Section)
1. Computational Solution Design Design and evaluate computational solutions for a purpose. 18%–25%
2. Algorithms and Program Development Develop and implement algorithms. 20%–28%
3. Abstraction in Program Development Develop programs that incorporate abstractions. 7%–12%
4. Code Analysis Evaluate and test algorithms and programs. 12%–19%
5. Computing Innovations Investigate computing innovations. 28%–33%
6. Responsible Computing Contribute to an inclusive, safe, collaborative, and ethical computing culture. Not assessed

How long is the AP Computer Science Principles exam?

Breakdown of the Exam Sections

The AP Computer Science Principles exam is approximately 2 hours and 15 minutes long. However, this time frame does not solely consist of answering questions and completing tasks. It encompasses a comprehensive evaluation of your understanding and application of computer science principles.

The exam is divided into two sections: the multiple-choice section and the free-response section. The multiple-choice section is an integral part of the exam, accounting for 70% of your total score. It consists of 74 questions that test your knowledge of various aspects of computer science principles.

Multiple-choice section

In this section, you will encounter questions that test your understanding of fundamental concepts in computer science, such as abstraction, algorithms, and data representation. You will also be assessed on your ability to think computationally, solve problems, and analyze and interpret data. Additionally, questions related to programming languages, software development, and the ethical and social implications of computing may also be included.

To best tackle the multiple-choice section of the AP Computer Science Principles exam, students should follow these tips:

  1. Understand the exam format: The multiple-choice section consists of 70 questions, and students have 2 hours to complete it. The questions are single-select, single-select with a reading passage, or multiple-select, with four answer options for each question.
  2. Read the questions carefully: Students should read them carefully and ensure they understand what is asked before selecting an answer. They should also pay attention to keywords and phrases that can help them eliminate incorrect answer options.
  3. Practice with sample questions: Students should practice with sample questions to familiarize themselves with the exam format and question types. The College Board provides sample questions and scoring guidelines on its website, and other resources such as Albert.io and Barron’s AP Computer Science Principles Premium offer comprehensive practice exams.
  4. Review course materials: Students should review their course materials, including notes, textbooks, and online resources, to reinforce their understanding of the concepts covered in the exam.
  5. Manage time effectively: Students should manage their time during the exam to ensure they have enough time to answer all the questions. They should also pace themselves and avoid spending too much time on queries.

By following these tips, students can improve their chances of success on the multiple-choice section of the AP Computer Science Principles exam.

Performance task section

The performance task section determines the remaining 30% of your score. This section consists of two performance tasks that assess your ability to apply computer science principles in real-world scenarios. These tasks require you to analyze, design, and implement solutions to complex problems.

Completing the performance tasks effectively demands technical knowledge, problem-solving skills, and creativity. You will need to demonstrate your understanding of computational thinking, data analysis, and the ethical implications of computing. It is crucial to allocate sufficient time to plan, develop, and refine your solutions to maximize your performance in this section.

To best tackle the performance task section of the AP Computer Science Principles exam, students should follow these tips:

  1. Understand the format: The performance task section is worth 30% of the exam and consists of two tasks that students must complete in 2 hours. One of the tasks is the Create performance task, which focuses on creating a computer program. The other task is an end-of-course written response section, where students demonstrate their understanding of their personal Create performance task by answering four prompts.
  2. Practice programming and computational thinking: Students should practice developing computer programs and solving problems using computational thinking concepts. They can use resources like practice exams and programming platforms to hone their skills.
  3. Manage your time: Since students have 2 hours to complete the performance task section, it is essential to manage their time effectively. They should allocate enough time to read and understand the tasks, plan their solutions, and test their programs.
  4. Review the scoring guidelines: Familiarize yourself with the scoring guidelines for the performance tasks. This will help you understand how your work will be evaluated and how to earn maximum points. You can find sample responses and scoring explanations on the College Board website and other educational resources.
  5. Seek help if needed: If you are struggling with the performance tasks, don’t hesitate to ask your teacher or classmates for help. There are also online communities and forums where you can find support and guidance from other students and educators.

Remember, the AP Computer Science Principles exam is not just a test of your knowledge; it is an opportunity to showcase your understanding and application of computer science principles. By approaching the exam with a strategic mindset, thorough preparation, and effective time management, you can confidently navigate the exam and demonstrate your proficiency in this exciting field.

The second part of the AP Computer Science Principles Exam includes a continuous “Create” performance task where students create a computer program of their choice. Additionally, there is an end-of-course written response section where students showcase the comprehension of their personal “Create” performance task by responding to four prompts. During the in-class portion, students are allotted nine hours to finalize their program, create a video, and assemble a Personalized Project Reference.

In the written response segment, students can refer to their Personalized Project Reference by answering four prompts related to their program and the code in this reference sheet. One question from each category of prompts listed below will be presented on the final exam. The specific prompts may differ between different versions of the exam.

Prompt Category Required Learning Objectives
Program Design, Function, and Purpose Students should be prepared to respond to prompts about their program that assess any of the following learning objectives:

CRD-2.A: Describe the purpose of a computing innovation.

CRD-2.B: Explain how a program or code segment functions.

CRD-2.C: Identify input(s) to a program.

CRD-2.D: Identify output(s) produced by a program.

CRD-2.E: Develop a program using a development process.

CRD-2.F: Design a program and its user interface.

CRD-2.G: Describe the purpose of a code segment or program by writing documentation.

Algorithm Development Students should be prepared to respond to prompts about their program that assess any of the following learning objectives:

CRD-2.B: Explain how a program or code segment functions.

AAP-2.E.b: Evaluate expressions that use relational operators.

AAP-2.F.b: Evaluate expressions that use logic operators.

AAP-2.H.b: Determine the result of conditional statements.

AAP-2.J: Express an algorithm that uses iteration without using a programming language.

AAP-2.K.b: Determine the result or side effect of iteration statements.

AAP-2.L: Compare multiple algorithms to determine if they yield the same side effect or result.

AAP-2.M.a: Create algorithms.

AAP-2.M.b: Combine and modify existing algorithms.

Errors and Testing Students should be prepared to respond to prompts about their program that assess any of the following learning objectives:

CRD-2.I.a: Identify the error.

CRD-2.I.b: Correct the error.

CRD-2.J: Identify inputs and corresponding expected outputs or behaviors that can be used to check the correctness of an algorithm or program.

Data and Procedural Abstraction Students should be prepared to respond to prompts about their program that assess any of the following learning objectives:

AAP-1.D.a: Develop data abstraction using lists to store multiple elements.

AAP-1.D.b: Explain how the use of data abstraction manages complexity in program code.

AAP-2.O.a: Write iteration statements to traverse a list.

AAP-2.O.b: Determine the result of an algorithm that includes list traversals.

AAP-3.B: Explain how the use of procedural abstraction manages complexity in a program.

Here are some sample questions and answers from a previous AP Computer Science Principles exam so you’d know what to expect:

samples from AP Computer Science Principles samples from AP Computer Science Principles samples from AP Computer Science Principles samples from AP Computer Science Principles samples from AP Computer Science Principles

How hard is the AP Computer Science Principles Exam?

The difficulty level of the AP Computer Science Principles exam can vary depending on your previous experience and preparation. For students who have a strong understanding of the course material and have practiced applying their knowledge to various scenarios, the exam may be more manageable.

However, for students who are new to computer science or have limited exposure to the subject, the exam may pose more challenges. Dedication to studying, practicing coding, and reviewing course materials will be crucial to success on the exam.

When assessing the difficulty of the AP Computer Science Principles exam, it is essential to consider the content and skills covered in the course. The exam is designed to evaluate students’ understanding of the foundational concepts of computer science, as well as their ability to apply these concepts in real-world scenarios.

One of the critical areas covered in the exam is computational thinking, which involves breaking down complex problems into smaller, more manageable parts and developing algorithms to solve them. This requires students to think logically and analytically, as well as to have a solid understanding of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques.

Another critical aspect of the exam is the understanding of the internet and its impact on society. Students are expected to have a grasp of how the Internet works, including topics such as networks, protocols, and data transmission. They should also be aware of the ethical and social implications of technology, such as privacy concerns and the digital divide.

Furthermore, the exam assesses students’ ability to design and implement computer programs using a programming language. This includes understanding variables, data types, control structures, and functions. Students should also be familiar with the concepts of abstraction and modularity, as well as debugging and testing their code.

To succeed on the AP Computer Science Principles exam, students must have a solid foundation in these areas. This can be achieved through classroom instruction, hands-on coding practice, and independent study. Students should use resources such as textbooks, online tutorials, and coding exercises to reinforce their understanding of the course material.

Additionally, participating in coding competitions or joining computer science clubs can provide valuable opportunities for students to apply their knowledge and gain practical experience. Collaborating with peers and seeking guidance from teachers or mentors can also help students overcome challenges and clarify any misconceptions.

Ultimately, the difficulty of the AP Computer Science Principles exam is subjective and dependent on individual factors such as prior experience, study habits, and dedication. With proper preparation and a strong understanding of the course material, students can approach the exam with confidence and increase their chances of success.

Key Topics Covered in the AP Computer Science Principles Exam

Principles of Computer Science

Understanding the basic principles of computer science is crucial for the exam. These principles include outlining the structure of digital data representation, the internet, algorithms, and the societal implications of computing, such as privacy and security concerns.

When it comes to digital data representation, students must have a solid grasp of concepts like binary code, hexadecimal notation, and ASCII encoding. They should understand how these different systems represent and manipulate data in computers.

Male student writing in front of his laptop.

Furthermore, a thorough understanding of the internet is essential. Students should be familiar with the basic architecture of the Internet, including concepts like IP addresses, domain names, and protocols. They should also be aware of the different layers of the internet, such as the application layer, transport layer, and network layer.

Algorithms are another crucial aspect of computer science principles. Students should be able to analyze and understand algorithms, including their efficiency and correctness. They should also know different algorithmic techniques, such as sorting and searching algorithms.

Lastly, the societal implications of computing cannot be ignored. Students should consider the ethical and legal issues surrounding computer science, including privacy concerns, security risks, and the impact of technology on society as a whole.

Data and Information

Data and information management is a key part of the subject. Anticipate questions based on understanding how data is stored, manipulated, and utilized to solve problems. This also covers topics like data collection, data analysis, and data visualization.

When it comes to data storage, students should be familiar with different data structures and their advantages and disadvantages. They should understand concepts like arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues. They should also be able to analyze the time and space complexity of different data structures and algorithms.

Data manipulation is another crucial aspect. Students should be able to perform operations on data, such as sorting, searching, and filtering. They should also be able to analyze and interpret data using techniques like statistical analysis and data visualization.

Furthermore, students should understand the importance of data collection and the potential biases and limitations that can arise. They should know different data collection methods, such as surveys, experiments, and observational studies. They should also consider the ethical implications of data collection and the importance of protecting individuals’ privacy.

Algorithms and Programming

The ability to understand, analyze, and write algorithms is a fundamental skill expected of AP computer science students. Programming in languages, such as JavaScript, will be tested. An understanding of high-level concepts—like variables, control structures, and data structures—is essential.

Students should be able to write algorithms to solve problems using techniques like iteration, recursion, and divide-and-conquer. They should also be able to analyze the efficiency of algorithms, considering factors like time and space complexity.

Programming in a high-level language like JavaScript requires students to understand concepts like variables, data types, control structures (such as loops and conditionals), and functions. They should be able to write code that is correct, efficient, and maintainable.

Additionally, students should have a good understanding of data structures and their implementation in programming. They should be able to use data structures like arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues to solve problems effectively.

Overall, the AP Computer Science Principles exam covers a wide range of topics, including principles of computer science, data and information management, and algorithms and programming. Students must have a solid understanding of these topics to succeed on the exam.

How to study for the AP Computer Science Principles Exam

Creating a Study Schedule

Formulating a systematic study schedule is vital to ensure you cover all necessary topics and devote ample time to practice. By creating a study schedule, you can effectively manage your time and avoid last-minute cramming. Start by assessing the material you must cover and break it into manageable chunks. Allocate separate time blocks for theory and practical aspects of the course, as both are equally important. This will allow you to focus on understanding the concepts and applying them in coding exercises.

Additionally, it is crucial to regularly review previously studied material to reinforce your understanding. Set aside specific time slots each week to revisit the topics you have covered in the past. This will help you retain the information and prevent it from fading from your memory. Consider using techniques such as flashcards or summarizing the key points to aid your review process.

Utilizing Practice Exams

Simulating actual exam conditions using past papers or mock exams is a great way to familiarize yourself with the format. This approach not only exposes you to a wide range of potential questions but also helps you develop time-management strategies. Start by obtaining practice exams from reliable sources, such as the College Board or reputable study guides. Set aside specific time slots to complete these practice exams under timed conditions, just as you would during the actual exam.

After completing each practice exam, take the time to review your answers and understand any mistakes you made thoroughly. This will allow you to identify your weak areas and focus on improving them. Consider seeking guidance from your teacher or a tutor if you are struggling with certain concepts or types of questions. Remember, practice exams are not only a tool for assessing your knowledge but also an opportunity for growth and learning.

Reviewing Key Concepts

Make sure you thoroughly understand all fundamental concepts and review them repeatedly. Utilize online resources, textbooks, and class notes to maximize your comprehension. Take the time to read through the relevant chapters in your book and make notes to summarize the main ideas. This will help you consolidate your understanding and provide a quick reference for future revision.

In addition to reviewing the theoretical aspects, it is essential to practice coding regularly to solidify your understanding of programming concepts. Set aside time each week to work on coding exercises or small projects that apply the concepts you have learned. This hands-on practice will not only improve your coding skills but also enhance your problem-solving abilities, which are crucial for success in the AP Computer Science Principles exam.

Furthermore, consider joining online coding communities or participating in coding competitions to challenge yourself and gain exposure to different problem-solving techniques. Engaging with other like-minded individuals can provide valuable insights and support throughout your preparation journey.

Tips for Exam Day

Preparing for an exam can be a nerve-wracking experience, but with the right strategies and mindset, you can conquer any challenge that comes your way. In this article, we will provide valuable tips to help you succeed on exam day.

What to Bring to the Exam

Ensuring that you have all the necessary materials with you on exam day is crucial for a smooth and stress-free experience. Here are some essential items to pack:

  • A couple of sharpened No.2 pencils with erasers for the multiple-choice section. It’s always a good idea to have a backup pencil in case one breaks.
  • A watch to manage your time effectively. Keeping track of time is essential to allocate enough time to each exam section.
  • Your school identification for verification purposes. Most exams require you to present a valid ID to confirm your identity.
  • Snacks for energy during breaks. Opt for healthy and light snacks that will provide you with the necessary fuel to keep your brain sharp.

Practice coding

Coding is a fundamental skill tested in the AP Computer Science Principles exam. To excel in this exam, it is crucial to practice coding regularly. Engage in coding exercises that cover a wide range of concepts and difficulty levels. This will not only improve your programming skills but also familiarize you with different coding concepts that may appear in the exam.

Test-Taking Tips for the Day of the Exam

On the day of the AP Computer Science Principles exam, it is crucial to be well-prepared and focused. Here are some tips to help you perform your best:

  1. Get a good night’s sleep: Ensure you get enough rest the night before the exam to be alert and focused during the test.
  2. Arrive early: Arrive at the exam location early to avoid any last-minute stress or rush.
  3. Read the instructions carefully: Take the time to read through the instructions for each exam section to understand what is expected of you.
  4. Manage your time: Use your time wisely during the exam. If you get stuck on a question, move on and come back to it later if you have time.
  5. Review your answers: Once you have completed a section, review your answers to check for any mistakes or areas of improvement.

When is the AP Computer Science Principles Exam in 2024?

Unlike the SAT Subject Tests that are offered on multiple different days, all of the AP exams are only administered on one specific day of the calendar year. The exact date tends to fluctuate each year, although it generally falls within the first two weeks of May. The following AP Computer Science Principles Exam is scheduled for Wednesday, May 15th, 2024, at noon. For a complete list of the 2024 AP Exam dates, here’s a complete list:

Week 1 Morning 8 a.m.

Local Time

Afternoon 12 p.m.

Local Time


May 6, 2024

United States Government and Politics Art History



May 7, 2024

Human Geography





May 8, 2024

English Literature and Composition Comparative Government and Politics

Computer Science A


May 9, 2024

Chinese Language and Culture

Environmental Science


May 10, 2024

European History

United States History


Spanish Literature and Culture

Art and Design: Friday, May 10, 2024 (8 p.m. ET), is the deadline for AP Art and Design students to submit their three portfolio components as final in the AP Digital Portfolio.
Week 2 Morning 8 a.m.

Local Time

Afternoon 12 p.m.

Local Time

Afternoon 2 p.m.

Local Time


May 13, 2024

Calculus AB

Calculus BC

Italian Language and Culture



May 14, 2024

English Language and Composition African American Studies

Physics C: Mechanics

Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism

May 15, 2024

French Language and Culture

World History: Modern

Computer Science Principles

Music Theory


May 16, 2024

Spanish Language and Culture Biology

Japanese Language and Culture


May 17, 2024

German Language and Culture

Physics 1: Algebra-Based


Physics 2: Algebra-Based

When do AP scores come out?

AP scores are typically released in early to mid-July of the year the exams were taken. The exact release date may vary slightly from year to year, but students who took their AP exams in May can generally expect their scores to become available.

If you are waiting for your AP scores, you can check for updates on the College Board’s official AP scores website. They will also send you an email notification when your scores are added to your score report. If you haven’t received your scores by mid-August, it’s recommended to contact AP Services for Students for assistance.

Post-Exam Tips

After completing the AP Computer Science Principles exam, it is essential to reflect on your performance and take some post-exam actions:

  • Evaluate your performance: Take the time to think about how you felt during the exam and how well you believe you performed. This reflection can help you identify areas for improvement for future exams or coursework.
  • Seek feedback: If possible, reach out to your teacher or instructor to discuss your performance on the exam and ask for any input or areas where you can focus your studies.
  • Continue learning: Regardless of your exam performance, explore and learn about computer science. The AP Computer Science Principles exam is just one step in your journey to becoming a proficient computer scientist.

The AP Computer Science Principles exam can be challenging, but with the proper preparation and mindset, you can confidently approach and ace it. Use the tips and resources provided in this guide to navigate the exam successfully and achieve your desired score.

Teenage schoolboy sitting at classroom and doing exam with his classmates.

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