USA Physics Olympiad: What You Need To Know

By Eric Eng

By Eric Eng

a female student holding on to her medal

USA Physics Olympiad: What You Need To Know

The USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) is one of the most prestigious and demanding extracurricular activities for high school students. Because of its challenging nature, participating in the USAPhO is an impressive addition to college applications, greatly assisting students in gaining admission to their dream colleges or universities.

In this blog, we cover what the USAPhO is about, how you can join and prepare. We will also discuss whether this competition is worth your time and resources.

What is the USA Physics Olympiad?

The USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) offers you an exciting opportunity to represent the United States at the International Physics Olympiad. This program focuses on developing your academic skills, especially in Physics, as you prepare for this international challenge.

You can qualify for the USAPhO through the F=ma exam; if you score at or above a specific cutoff, you’ll be invited to take the USAPhO exam. Note that the USAPhO exam is purely invitational.

Some students who don’t meet this cutoff might still receive an invitation based on other criteria. Each year, around four hundred students get the chance to compete in the USAPhO, and sometimes, nonresident U.S. citizens can also participate.

Ultimately, the U.S. Physics Team provides a strong training opportunity, preparing U.S. citizens to excel and win at the International Physics Olympiad.

The USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) is designed to nurture and highlight academic excellence by preparing students for the International Physics Olympiad.

a male student writing an essay to his notebook

The U.S. physics team is guided by several key foundational objectives:

  • Improve physics education and honor students who excel in physics.
  • Raise the program’s profile and encourage more students to participate.
  • Provide enriching scientific and cultural experiences, giving team members excellent networking opportunities and meeting some of the world’s top physicists.
  • Aim for international success by winning medals at the International Physics Olympiad.

The United States has won 66 Gold Medals, 48 Silver Medals, 29 Bronze Medals, and 11 Honorable Mentions at the International Physics Olympiad. Many students have used this to show their talent and determination to succeed.

How can you join the USA Physics Olympiad?

AAPT, or the American Association of Physics Teachers, is responsible for recruiting, selecting, and training teams that compete in the International Physics Olympiad each year. The selection process for these elite teams begins each year in late January when high schoolers register for the F=ma exam, which is the qualifying test for entry into the USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO).

Annually, the top 400 scorers on the qualifying exam are invited to compete in the USAPhO. From there, 20 students are chosen to attend a training camp. This team is comprised of students from all over the United States. At the end of May, they join forces at the University of Maryland-College Park for the annual United States Physics Team Training Camp.

There, they participate in a rigorous 10-day studying, testing, and problem-solving session. At the end of that 10-day course, just five students are selected for roles in the traveling team.

  • What is the scope of the F=ma exam? The F=ma exam focuses on mechanics such as kinematics, statics, Newton’s laws, momentum, energy, orbital mechanics, fluids, oscillations, and elementary data analysis. In the exam, all problems are expected to be solved using calculus; however, some questions may be shorter calculus-based solutions.
  • What is the scope of the USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO)?  The USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) exam covers all topics that are involved in introductory physics such as mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, relativity, nuclear physics, atomic physics, particle physics, waves, optics, and data analysis. As is in the F=ma exam, problems are likely to require calculus.

The USAPhO exam was taken on April 2, 2024, while the 10-day training camp at the University of Maryland will be held from May 31 to June 11, 2024. 

How is the F=ma exam formatted?

The F=ma exam consists of 25 multiple-choice questions focused solely on mechanics, excluding topics like electricity, magnetism, and modern physics. You’ll have 75 minutes to complete these questions. Since there’s no penalty for wrong answers, it’s advisable to guess if you’re unsure, as each correct answer earns you one point.

A mother and her student looking at her laptop.

The qualification scores for the USAPhO generally fall between 14 and 17, though this can vary since the cutoffs are adjusted to select the top 400 scorers. The difficulty of the exam each year influences these qualification scores, with the median score typically being just over half of the qualifying mark. Similar to other competitions like the AMC, the F=ma is offered in two versions or sets, exam A and exam B, each with different questions but designed to be of comparable difficulty, resulting in distinct qualification scores for each due to variations in challenge level.

Furthermore, the USAPhO consists of a 3-hour free response exam split into two 90-minute sections. Students must provide detailed justifications for their answers during this exam.

Results will be available 6 to 8 weeks following the exam. Please check the official website or keep an eye out for an email notification regarding the results.

How do you register for and take the F=ma exam?

Registration for the F=ma test closed on January 22, 2024 while the test itself was scheduled for February 8, 2024. The exam window opened from 7 AM to 8 PM EST that day.

Registration: Students interested in taking the F=ma exam should contact their schools for registration. Teachers or school representatives can then visit the designated registration site to set up an account and register students for the exam. If your school does not offer this, you must encourage them to register and participate.

Fees: Starting in 2024, fees for school and student registration have increased. The School Registration Fee is now $75 per school, with a discounted rate of $37.50 for AAPT Members. Additionally, there is a fee of $15 per student.

Exam Day reminders: On the day of the exam, make sure to arrive early to get settled in. Students are permitted to bring the following items to the competition:

  • Writing tools (including colored pens and pencils)
  • Rulers
  • Erasers
  • A handheld calculator, though it must have its memory cleared of any data and programs. Only basic functions typical of a simple scientific calculator are allowed.
  • During the F=ma and USAPhO exams, you may only use the scratch paper provided by the proctors. This paper, along with the exam pages, will be collected immediately after the exam concludes.

Who is eligible to join the USA Physics Olympiad?

To participate in the USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) and the F=ma exam, students must adhere to the following eligibility requirements:

  • Residency: Participants must be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents (green card holders).
  • Exam Locations: The F=ma exam may be administered at locations outside the U.S., subject to specific proctoring rules. The USAPhO exam must be taken within the United States.
  • International Competition Eligibility: To be invited to the U.S. Physics Team training camp, students must be eligible to compete at the International Physics Olympiad. This requires U.S. citizenship or a green card; a minimum of three years of schooling in the U.S.
  • Training Camp Requirements: Students must be able to attend the entire 10-day U.S. Physics Team training camp. Attendance at the training camp is limited to no more than twice per student.

Ultimately, to participate in the USAPhO, you need to be invited by the organization. That means you must be included in the Top 400 F=ma test takers.

Attentive teenage schoolboys and schoolgirls debating in teams in library

Preparing for the F=ma and USA Physics Olympiad

Every year, thousands of gifted and diligent students from all over the country take the F=ma exam. You will be up against some of the most brilliant high school students in the US who waited for this opportunity. To outsmart and outdo everyone, you have to dedicate yourself into preparing for the said exam. And by that, we do not mean to prepare a week before the exam. Your preparation should be all year round.

We collected a few resources and tips to help you prepare:

Problem-Solving Strategies

Developing strong sets of problem-solving strategies is key for these exams. Practice extensively with hundreds of problems to build this skill set. Focus on a deep understanding of the topics for tests, using memorization only to complement your knowledge.

  • Break It Down: Start by reading the problem thoroughly and then breaking it into manageable parts. Define what is known, what needs to be found, and how the known elements relate to the unknowns.
  • Simplify: If the problem seems complex, simplify it by substituting easier numbers or reducing it to a simpler case to see the underlying principles more clearly.
  • Visual Representation: Draw diagrams, graphs, or charts to visualize relationships and functions. This can help in understanding complex algebraic relationships or geometric properties.
  • Identify Relevant Principles: Physics problems often require you to apply specific principles or laws, such as Newton’s laws of motion, conservation laws, or electromagnetism. Identify which principles are relevant to solving the problem.
  • Free Body Diagrams and Equations: For problems involving forces, drawing a free body diagram helps visualize the problem and is crucial for setting up the equations correctly.
  • Dimensional Analysis: Use dimensional analysis to check the consistency of physical equations and estimate the answer’s size. This can also help convert units and ensure that your final answer makes physical sense.


If your school offers the exam, forming a study group can be a great strategy. Working with peers allows you to exchange ideas, clarify concepts, and solve problems together. This collaborative approach not only helps fill individual knowledge gaps but also improves everyone’s preparation, potentially leading to better exam performance.

Sharing different perspectives and solutions deepens understanding and creates a supportive learning environment. This makes the study process both effective and enjoyable.

Available Online Resources

To prepare effectively for the F=ma exam, you must gather the right study materials. This exam covers a wide range of high school physics topics, so ensure your resources offer comprehensive overviews. Also, include a mix of practice problems and mock exams in your study kit. These resources will help you get used to the exam format and question types, boosting your confidence and readiness for the test.

Students working on their robots.

Primary Resources

To excel in the F=ma competition, a solid understanding of fundamental mechanics is crucial. Here are various resources to deepen your physics knowledge:

  1. Open Yale Course: Fundamentals of Physics: Ideal for students with a solid background in physics and mathematics. It covers key areas like Newtonian mechanics, special relativity, gravitation, thermodynamics, and waves, offering a comprehensive introduction to physics principles and methods.
  2. MIT Physics I: Classical Mechanics with Walter Lewin: This popular lecture series makes learning mechanics intriguing and enjoyable. Walter Lewin’s approach demystifies complex concepts and is highly regarded in the academic community.
  3. A 25-minute Guide to Score 25 on the F=ma: This concise video provides a quick overview of essential concepts for the F=ma exam, perfect for basic understanding and last-minute review.
  4. Physics Library by Khan Academy: Explore AP Physics 1 materials through these educational videos, which build a solid foundation in physics fundamentals and set the stage for more advanced studies.
  5. MIT OCW: Classical Mechanics: Adapted from MIT’s fall 2016 course materials, this course offers a structured learning experience emphasizing academic rigor in classical mechanics.

Mock Exams

To excel at the F=MA Exam, it’s better to get comfortable with its format by practicing extensively.

Access past F=MA exams here and attempt them as if you’re in an actual test setting. Set a timer, refrain from peeking at the solutions until you’re done, and assess where you faced difficulties afterward. Use this insight to direct your study efforts more effectively toward weaker areas.

Once you’re confident with your preparation, challenge yourself further by trying the previous IPHO 2021 exams here. This can help you gauge your readiness and refine your problem-solving skills under similar conditions.

Frequently Asked Questions about the USA Physics Olympiad

1. I am homeschooled. Can I still join?

Homeschooled students can register for the exam through their parents, but they need to arrange for an alternative proctor. It’s important that proctors are not related to the students they oversee. Additionally, proctors must have at least a 2-year degree, which doesn’t need to be in physics.

2. How do I write my solutions during the exams?

For the USAPhO exam, it’s important to present your solutions clearly and logically. Start by identifying the equations you are using, demonstrate your calculation steps, and add diagrams or sketches to clarify your process where needed. To highlight your final answer, consider boxing it in. When using a pencil, make sure your handwriting is dark and clear to ensure it remains legible after your solutions are scanned. While you don’t need to explain standard results in full sentences or detail every algebraic step, providing a comprehensive explanation can help you secure partial credit in case there are errors in your solution.

3. Which country has won the most physics Olympiad?

China has been the most successful country at the International Physics Olympiad (IPhO), securing the highest number of gold medals (146 gold medals) and frequently topping the overall rankings. Russia, Taiwan, and South Korea also consistently excel in the competition.

an academic triathlon awarding ceremony

4. What is typically covered in the F=ma exams?

The F=ma exam primarily covers mechanics topics such as kinematics, statics, Newton’s laws, momentum and energy, oscillations, orbital mechanics, rotational dynamics, fluids, dimensional analysis, and basic data analysis. While all problems can be addressed without calculus, some may be more quickly solved using calculus-based approaches.

Should I join USAPho? Is it worth it?

Joining the USA Physics Olympiad (USAPhO) can be a highly rewarding experience, especially if you have a strong interest in physics. Here are some points to consider to help you decide if it’s right for you:

Educational and Career Advantages

  • Develop Problem-Solving Skills: The preparation and competition require advanced problem-solving and critical thinking, which are invaluable in any academic or professional setting.
  • Boost Your College Applications: Success in prestigious competitions like the USAPhO can strengthen your college applications, highlighting your dedication and expertise in physics.

Personal Growth and Networking

  • Connect with Like-Minded Peers: You’ll meet other students passionate about physics, potentially forming lasting friendships and future professional connections.
  • Gain Mentorship: Interacting with educators and physics experts can lead to mentorship opportunities and guidance for your academic and career paths.
  • Build Confidence: Excelling in a challenging environment can significantly enhance your confidence in your abilities.


  • Time Commitment: Preparing for the USAPhO requires significant time. You’ll need to manage this alongside your schoolwork and other commitments.
  • Manage Stress and Pressure: Competitions can be stressful, and it’s crucial to consider how this might impact you and whether you have the support needed to handle it.

If these benefits align with your academic goals and personal interests, and you’re ready for the challenges, participating in the USAPhO could be highly beneficial and rewarding.

The USA Physics Olympiad looks fantastic in university applications

This is the last reason we will go over, but it is certainly not the least important. It isn’t easy to get into top universities without having a couple of impressive extracurriculars on their college resume. When you are thinking about extracurriculars that your student could get the most out of, there are some very important things to keep in mind about what college admission officers most value when it comes to them.

The first thing that any college admissions officer wants to see when looking at extracurriculars is that students stick with their chosen activities. Devoting oneself to one club and one sports team is far more impressive than trying a new club and a new sports team every year. This shows that a student can stick to something and wants to perfect skills and lessons.

The next thing a college admissions officer looks for is passion. In any application, students should make sure to explain what they love about the extracurricular activities they chose during high school.

The final thing that every college admissions officer looks for is leadership. This is key. Above all, a student should look to assume a leadership role at some point in the extracurriculars they pursue. Through time, leadership roles should be highly possible and look fantastic on any college application.


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